you are cut off-1 DON'T CUT OFF THE BRANCH YOU ARE SITTING ON

一 : 1 DON'T CUT OFF THE BRANCH YOU ARE SITTING ON

CARTESIAN - Remote Sensing based Management Information Systemfor Ski Resort PlanningHans-Caspar BodmerKlaus SeidelJeroen Aerts

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, SwitzerlandComputer Vision Group, Communication Technology Laboratory, ETHZ, Zürich, SwitzerlandResource Analysis, Delft, Netherlands

ABSTRACT: In the frame of an EU-Project an inter- and transdisziplinary team developed an interactiveManagement Information System (MIS). The aim is to provide a sophisticated tool for ski regionmanagement to planners, politicians and decision makers, environmentalists or tourist specialists, basedon remotely sensed and auxiliary data for model based interpretation schemes.

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DON’T CUT OFF THE BRANCH YOU ARESITTING ON

CARTESIAN, AN INTERDISCIPLINARYEU-PROJECT

Imagine the evolution of men for the last 250’000years represented by one hour of a clock, 30 secondsago we started with our calendar after Christ, sincetwo seconds we proudly use the car and since onesecond we are confronted with a new phenomenacalled mass tourism.

Mass tourism bases on the four boom factors (Krip-pendorf et al 1986): (a) more and more time for lei-sure, (b) increasing amount of money for leisure,sport etc., (c) daily routine and stress asks for moreeasing and (d) mobility is still cheap and availablefor everyone.

So, millions of guests visit every year the alpine arcbetween Nice and Vienna for summer and winterrecreation.

The results of this "last second" are more than40’000 ski pists covering an area of more then 1000km2 or more then 10’000 transport facilities with astill heavily increasing transport capacity (CIPRA1993). We are confronted with a development whichis rather new and with a dynamic we are not yet fa-miliar to deal with.

It is not up to us to judge what is good and what isbad, but we would like to emphasize the necessity ofmonitoring and planning in alpine regions to preventfurther damages. There is a severe risk, that tourismdestroys its own base: an interesting and beautifulalpine landscape.

Well aware of these problems a group of scientistsdeveloped an interactive Management InformationSystem (MIS) to provide planners, politicians, natureconservationists or tourism specialists with a plan-ning tool to make the decisions in planning pro-cesses more effective. Of special interest is the useof remotely sensed data, i.e. space born and air bornimagery to provide an objective database related toenvironmental monitoring and maintenance of skiregions.

The management information system (MIS) is basedon a GIS based expert system, which merges infor-mation derived from satellite imagery, aerial photo-graphs, inventories, statistics, maps and of courseknowledge of experts enabling model based analy-ses. By means of the MIS the user can interactivelybut to receive as much information as possible totake a comprehensible decision considering theassumptions.3

CONSORTIUM AND CASE STUDIES

The international consortium exists of research in-stitutes of Zürich, Amsterdam and Grenoble and"customers" representing the management of ski-regions, a bid-committee for Olympic games andtouristic enterprises (CARTESIAN, 2000).

EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

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Fig. 1The three case study areas in Austria (Sivretta Nova), Switzerland (Sion ) and France (Les Arcs).

The three test sites are located in "Silvretta Nova" inthe Austrian Montafon valley, the Sion area inSwitzerland, where Olympic games could have takenplace in 2006 and the ski station "Les Arcs" in theregion of Albertville (see Fig. 1)

In each of the three test sites different case studieswere exemplary elaborated:

a. Economical and ecological aspects of a new in-frastructure in the ski-regions "Silvretta Nova".As an example: which information is used in theplanning process of a new ski lift?

b. ecological and economical aspects of -infrastructure needed for Olympic games, i.e.what is the best location for the freestyle slope inthe Olympic perimeter in the valley?

c. What is the vision for a ski station as "Les Arcs"especially under changing climate or marketconditions?

4 DATA AND MODEL

Due to the complexity of the task data from verydifferent sources has been collected and models havebeen developed in order to show the interaction andthe influence of different parameters.

4.1.Data

From various remote sensing sensors (Landsat, IRS,aerial photography) a variety of maps has been de-rived and integrated into the GIS database. In addi-tion several inventories ranging from physical meas-urements, to land use and landscape properties havebeen compiled.

Whenever available corresponding data from histori-cal surveys have been used in order to demonstratechanges in time.

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Fig. 2 illustrates the diversity of information layersavailable in the MIS. The scorecard shows all rele-vant parameters for the envisaged analysis.

EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

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Fig. 2Scorecard showing all the relevant parameters for a case study.

4.2Models

The interdependence of economy, ecology andsociety and the above mentioned objectiveinformation layers are subject of this investigation.To treat the MIS information linear models forMulti Criteria Analysis (Nijkamp et al. 1990,Ridgley et al. 1998) are used. The advantage ofthese models is that the user can interactivelymanipulate different criteria without loosingcontrol over the system. This means, the user canelaborate different scenarios by giving changingweights to economy, ecology or other parameters.

BTools for ski area management, monitoringand planning

B1high quality monitoring

Different operational satellite offer the possibilityto monitor ski resorts with various resolution up to1 m2 (Spaceimaging 2000) (Fig. 1). The satellitepasses every 2-3 days and data can be acquired onrequest. This very high spatial and temporal resolu-tion enables managers to supervise ski regions. Ofcourse, as the sensor works in the visible range ofthe spectrum there should be no dense cloud coverto get usable data.

B2Snow cover maps

Snow cover information is essential for managingand planning of ski regions. They are derived fromsatellite data over large areas. By means of time se-ries of snow cover maps snow cover duration maps(Fig. 4) can be produced which are of high interestfor planning purposes. Based on this informationclimate change scenarios and their impact on snowcover can be calculated. This is particularly usefulfor planning new ski infrastructure.

5 RESULTS

As a result of CARTESIAN a Management Infor-mation System is distributed by means of a CD.With the clearly designed interface the user gets(A) general information about the project andremote sensing background, (B) tools for ski areamanagement, monitoring and planning, (C) toolsfor ski area promotion, (D) a list and the structureof the case studies and (E) information about eco-labeling in ski regions.

AGeneral Information

The first chapter introduces the user to the projectin general and remote sensing in giving a roughbackground on satellite data, sensors and products.

EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

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Fig. 3

IKONOS data from Les Arcs. With onemeter resolution even small differencesand bumps on the ski pists becomevisible.

B3Land use change detection

Remote sensing data is perfectly suited to identifydifferent land use classes and soil cover types. Bycomparing old an new satellite images or aerialphotographs it is possible to detect trends in land usechange. This methodology can be used to assessenvironmental impacts at local and regional scales.

B4Ski area planning and design tool

The monitoring products mentioned above can,along with other relevant information as nature andlandscape inventories, hazard maps etc. be inte-grated into a ski planning tool (Fig. 5), which facili-tates the planning of new infrastructure as ski lifts orslopes.C

Tools for ski area promotion

C13-D-Visualisation

Ski areas can be visualized making use of 3-D com-

EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

Fig. 4

Snow cover duration map of the RhoneValley including the Sion test site.

puter animations. Fast and realistic 3-D representa-tions of skiing areas enable the possibility to easilyshow future developments such as new ski lifts,pistes, clear fellings, buildings etc. Moreover prere-corded 3-D flights through the ski regions are possi-ble and an attractive way to promote a ski region.C2Interactive Internet applications

The 3-D image or any other picture can be used tocreate a visual information system. Information tospecific topics i.e. lodging, restaurants, infrastructureetc. can be obtained by simply clicking on the ap-propriate part of the image. This application is veryimportant within a new communication tool usingthe internet.

C3Internet panorama

Through new internet technology, it is possible tointeractively look around in the ski area. This 360degree panorama can be derived from 3-D anima-

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tions or real photographs taken in the field (Fig. 6).

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Fig. 5

Interface of the Ski area Planning tool for the Silvretta Nova test site.

STEP 1: ‘Issues and Problems’ (what is going on?)Within the first step, the user comes in contact witha Document Information System (DIS). This is aninformation system which shows the latestdevelopments on issues and (potential) problems.The user gets an overview of the case study area:the geographical and socio-economic features, theprocesses which could influence the decisionmaking process. In general, this step is meant tofamiliarize the user with the main subject andrelated issues.

STEP 2: ‘Objectives and Criteria’ (what must beaccomplished? how is this established?)

The user creates a decision hierarchy by specifyingthe main objective and sub-objectives and selectingfrom a list of criteria (supplied by the knowledge-modules in the MIS); these criteria will measurethe performance of his/her options regarding the(sub)objective(s); user-defined criteria can bespecified.

The weights that are attributed to the criteria werederived from expert knowledge, but can bechanged by the user. These weights symbolize therelative importance of the criteria compared to the

other criteria (Fig. 7).

Fig. 6.Panorama tool. The user can roam and

zoom in this virtual landscape. The imageis composed out of satellite data and thedigital elevation model.D

Structure of the case studies

In all three case studies the user finds the samestructure: With 7 FFA (Framework for Analysis)the user can interactively approach to solve hisproblems.

A summary of the 7 steps gives an impression ofthe functionality within the MIS.

EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

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Fig. 7

One scenario dealing with theenvironmental parameters. The darkstones indicate the weighting factors.

STEP 3: ‘Scenario’ (what are the exogenous fac-tors?)

A scenario is composed of exogenous factors thatinfluence the outcome of a policy decision(climatic changes, change in tourism demand,change in international laws, change in infra-structure of the surrounding area etc. )

STEP 4: ‘Alternatives, strategies and visions’ (howcan the problem be solved?)

In this step potential alternatives, strategies and vi-sions are described in order to get an insight intheir advantages and/or disadvantages.

STEP 5: ‘Analysis’ (analysis relevantcombinations of scenarios and alternatives)

Out of all possible combinations of scenarios andalternatives an analysis is made against the criteriadefined in Step 2.

Within step 5, a Multi Criteria Analysis model isused to analysise different alternatives. These pat-terns will be scored against the criteria in step 6.STEP 6: ‘Evaluation’ (whichalternative/case/vision prevails?)

The user is presented a scorecard in whichestimated scores (qualitative) can be specified (onthe sub-objectives level as well as on the criterialevel). This helps in establishing the discriminatingcapacity of the criteria used, in the cases evaluated.In step 6, the different scores for the alternativestrategies will be compared. A ranking of the alter-natives is meant to find the 'best' alternative.

If, by slightly changing the importance of acriteria, the best alternative changes the user knowsthis criteria is very important for the final result. If,by changing the importance of a criteria, the bestalternative does not change the user knows that thiscriteria does not have an important impact on theoutcome.

EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

The difference between step 2 and 6 is that in step2 you actually change the importance of the criteriawhile in step 6 you only evaluate if and how thecriteria influences the outcome.

STEP 7: ‘Presentation’ (what does it look like?)The ‘best’ alternative, strategy or vision ispresented in more detail. The situation before andafter solving the problem is presented using both2D and 3D visualization.

DEco labeling

Severe impacts on environment and society arevery often recognized in ski regions due toextensive activities and infrastructures. With theintroduction of eco-lables ski regions try to certifythe quality of their "product" i.e. a sustainabletourism which is in balance with economy, ecologyand society.

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AN EXAMPLE OF WORKING INTER-ACTIVELY WITH THE MIS: SION 2006

For the Olympic games in the ski area Sion, Swit-zerland, the organizer were looking for the best lo-cation for a free style slope. Using the interactiveMIS the planning process looks the following:Step 1 gives different information about the geo-graphical situation, natural, political background orsocio-economic aspects relevant for the Olympicgames as well as specific facts and figures concern-ing the technical requirements for free style skiing.In step 2 the user interactively prepairs the data forthe analysis by giving weights to the different pa-rameters in the area of economy, environment, sus-tainable development or social aspects. (see Fig. 2)In step 3 and 4 different scenarios can be selectedand 7 alternative sites under discussion for the freestyle slope are presented with general and morespecific background information.

The scorecard in step 5 shows all relevant parame-ters for the Multi Criteria Analysis (see Fig. 2) andin step 6 the different alternatives are evaluated ac-cording to the weights defined in step 2 (Fig. 8).

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Fig. 8According to the weights of step 2 Veysonnaz is the best location for the free style slope.

Finally in step 7 the results are visualized with all

kind of auxiliary information. Fig. 9 shows for ex-ample the surface which has to be cleared to realizethe free style slope in Veysonnaz (see the arrows).Fig. 9Virtual pictures of the test site Veysonnaz. The arrows point to the grey shaded areas, which have to be

cut for the free style slope. The pictures are the result of the overlay of aerial photographs over the

digital elevation model in the foreground and of satellite data in the background.

EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

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Conclusions

Sustainable development in ski regions is based onthe balance between social, ecological and economi-

an inter- and transdisciplinary process. in-volvement of different specialists becomes necessaryas well as the discussion with the end user in a par-ticipatory approach.

With the CARTESIAN project we hope to contrib-ute to sustainable ski region planning and we arelooking forward using the CARTESIAN MIS suc-cessfully for the organization of large events asOlympic games or World Championships.

Acknowledgements

This work has been carried out with financial sup-port of the European Union DG XII, Swiss FederalOffice for Education and Science and the DutchRemote Sensing Board.

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EARSeL 20th Symposium, 13-16 June 2000, Dresden/D

REFERENCES

CARTESIAN 2000: CIPRA 1993, unpublished information

CIPRA 1998: Wintersport-Grossveranstaltungen inden Alpen, Kleine Schriften 13/98CIPRA 1999: Info 5/99

Krippendorf Jost, Kramer Bernhard, MüllerHansruedi (1986): Freizeit und Tourismus, eineEinführung in theorie und Politik, VerlagForschungsinstitut für Fremdenverkehr derUniversit?t Bern, 175 Seiten.

Nijkamp, P., Rietveld, P., Voogd, H., 1990. MultiCriteria evaluation in physical planning,Amsterdam: North Holland.

Ridgley, M.R., Heil, G.W., 1998. Multi Criterionplanning of protected-area buffer zones: an appli-cation to Mexcio's Itza-Popo national park. Envi-ronment and Management: Multi Criteria forLand use Management. E. Beinat and P. Nijkamp,eds. 1998.

Spaceimaging 2000:

HYPERLINK8

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二 : Using cut-off saws - HSE Information about health

Health and Safety

Executive

Using cut-off saws

A guide to protecting your lungs

This is a web-friendly

version of leaflet INDG461,

published 03/13IntroductionIf you are working in highway paving construction or maintenance work, it is highly likely that you use a cut-off saw (also known as a disc cutter, a con saw or a ‘whizzer’). Cutting kerbs, paving or blocks can produce enormous amounts of dust. The dust will contain some very fine dust called respirable crystalline silica (RCS). Exposure to RCS dust can cause serious health problems and may eventually kill you.HSE and the Highways Agency have produced this leaflet which explains how RCS dust exposure can affect your health and what you can do to control the risks.Health effectsStones, rocks, sands and clays may contain large amounts of crystalline silica. They are used to make kerbs, flags, bricks, tiles and concrete. Even plastic kerbs can contain a silica-based filler. Cutting these materials produces very fine RCS particles

in the airborne dust. These particles are small and you can’t always see dust given out by cutting.

By breathing in RCS, you could develop the following lung diseases.

Silicosis

Silicosis makes breathing more difficult

and increases the risk of lung infections.

Silicosis usually follows exposure to RCS

over many years, but extremely high

exposures can lead rapidly to ill health.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary

disease (COPD)

COPD is a group of lung diseases,

including bronchitis and emphysema,

resulting in severe breathlessness,

prolonged coughing and chronic

disability. It may be caused by

breathing in any fine dusts, including

RCS. It can be very disabling and is a

leading cause of death. Cigarette

RCS exposure without dust suppression smoking can make it worse.can be massive

Page 1 of 4

Health and Safety

Executive

Lung cancer

Heavy and prolonged exposure to RCS can cause lung cancer. When someone already has silicosis, there is an increased risk of lung cancer.

The health risks from RCS are insignificant when exposure to dust is adequately controlled – you do not need to become ill through work activities.

Be aware!

■ ■ You can’t always see dust from cutting.

Dust could harm workmates and other people standing near you.

Managing or reducing the risk

Damp down the dust

Water suppression is your first line of

defence. All modern cut-off saws

have an attachment for a water hose.

The water can be supplied from a

mains feed (the best option) or a

pressurised water bottle. We

recommend a minimum flow rate of

0.5 litres per minute to damp down

dust effectively.

Wear a suitable dust mask

Even with water suppression, you will need to wear a suitable dust mask (respirator). Nuisance-grade dust masks do not protect your lungs. Use one with an assigned protection factor of 20, even when your water suppression equipment is working effectively. Use either FFP3 filtering facepieces or orinasal respirators with P3 filters.Maintain equipment

Check your machinery and safety equipment regularly.

■ Make sure the water jets are working properly. Maintaining an adequate water ■

■ ■ flow by cleaning the water jets is essential and should be done at least every time the blades are changed.Replace worn cutting discs to reduce the cutting time.Maintain hoses and bottles.

Inspect and maintain

re-usable masks.RCS dustOther risks

Make sure you deal with other

risks, eg:

■ noise;■ flying debris;■ water spray;You are at risk if the dust you breathe in

over a full shift contains more RCS than the amount shown here next to the penny.

Page 2 of 4Using cut-off saws: A guide to protecting your lungs

Health and Safety

Executive

■ hand-arm vibration;■ manual handling.

Consider the safety of yourself and others when you operate a cut-off saw. Use suitable personal protective equipment, such as hard hats, safety glasses and ear defenders. Make sure these items are worn correctly and are suitable for use together.Remember!

■ ■ Always damp down dust.

Wear a suitable dust mask.

Find out more

To protect employees and others,

employers should comply with the

workplace health and safety requirements

in the Control of Substances Hazardous to

Health Regulations 2002 (as amended)

(COSHH). HSE has produced simple

guidance on how to control RCS

exposure in construction. These COSHH

essentials guidance sheets are at www.

hse.gov.uk/pubns/guidance/cnseries.

htm. COSHH essentials sheet CN6

gives guidance on cutting paving and

kerbstones with rotary cutters.

Control of exposure to silica dust: A guide for employees Leaflet INDG463 HSE Books 2013 www.loach.net.cn.uk/pubns/indg463.htm

HSE have produced a DVD Time to clear the air! Protect your lungs when using cut-off saws, available from HSE’s website at www.loach.net.cn.uk/construction/resources/videos.htm

Respiratory protective equipment at work: A practical guide HSG53 (Third edition) HSE Books 2005 ISBN 978 0 7176 2904 6 www.loach.net.cn.uk/pubns/books/hsg53.htmYou can find more information about RPE at www.loach.net.cn.uk/respiratory-

protective-equipment/index.htm

See HSE’s construction web pages at www.loach.net.cn.uk/construction/index.htm

Using cut-off saws: A guide to protecting your lungs Page 3 of 4

Health and Safety

Executive

Further information

For information about health and safety, or to

report inconsistencies or inaccuracies in this

guidance, visit www.loach.net.cn.uk/. You can

view HSE guidance online and order priced

publications from the website. HSE priced

publications are also available from

bookshops.

This guidance is issued by the Health and

Safety Executive. Following the guidance is not

compulsory, unless specifically stated, and you

are free to take other action. But if you do

follow the guidance you will normally be doing

enough to comply with the law. Health and

safety inspectors seek to secure compliance

with the law and may refer to this guidance.

This leaflet is available at www.loach.net.cn.uk/pubns/indg461.htm.

? Crown copyright If you wish to reuse this information visit www.loach.net.cn.uk/copyright.htm for details. First published 03/13.

This leaflet is produced in conjunction with the Highways Agency

Published by the Health and Safety Executive 03/13 INDG461Page 4 of 4

三 : Using cut-off saws - HSE Information about health and

Health and Safety

Executive

Using cut-off saws

A guide to protecting your lungs

This is a web-friendly

version of leaflet INDG461,

published 03/13IntroductionIf you are working in highway paving construction or maintenance work, it is highly likely that you use a cut-off saw (also known as a disc cutter, a con saw or a ‘whizzer’). Cutting kerbs, paving or blocks can produce enormous amounts of dust. The dust will contain some very fine dust called respirable crystalline silica (RCS). Exposure to RCS dust can cause serious health problems and may eventually kill you.HSE and the Highways Agency have produced this leaflet which explains how RCS dust exposure can affect your health and what you can do to control the risks.Health effectsStones, rocks, sands and clays may contain large amounts of crystalline silica. They are used to make kerbs, flags, bricks, tiles and concrete. Even plastic kerbs can contain a silica-based filler. Cutting these materials produces very fine RCS particles

in the airborne dust. These particles are small and you can’t always see dust given out by cutting.

By breathing in RCS, you could develop the following lung diseases.

Silicosis

Silicosis makes breathing more difficult

and increases the risk of lung infections.

Silicosis usually follows exposure to RCS

over many years, but extremely high

exposures can lead rapidly to ill health.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary

disease (COPD)

COPD is a group of lung diseases,

including bronchitis and emphysema,

resulting in severe breathlessness,

prolonged coughing and chronic

disability. It may be caused by

breathing in any fine dusts, including

RCS. It can be very disabling and is a

leading cause of death. Cigarette

RCS exposure without dust suppression smoking can make it worse.can be massive

Page 1 of 4

you are cut off Using cut-off saws - HSE Information about health and

Health and Safety

Executive

Lung cancer

Heavy and prolonged exposure to RCS can cause lung cancer. When someone already has silicosis, there is an increased risk of lung cancer.

The health risks from RCS are insignificant when exposure to dust is adequately controlled – you do not need to become ill through work activities.

Be aware!

■ ■ You can’t always see dust from cutting.

Dust could harm workmates and other people standing near you.

Managing or reducing the risk

Damp down the dust

Water suppression is your first line of

defence. All modern cut-off saws

have an attachment for a water hose.

The water can be supplied from a

mains feed (the best option) or a

pressurised water bottle. We

recommend a minimum flow rate of

0.5 litres per minute to damp down

dust effectively.

Wear a suitable dust mask

Even with water suppression, you will need to wear a suitable dust mask (respirator). Nuisance-grade dust masks do not protect your lungs. Use one with an assigned protection factor of 20, even when your water suppression equipment is working effectively. Use either FFP3 filtering facepieces or orinasal respirators with P3 filters.Maintain equipment

Check your machinery and safety equipment regularly.

■ Make sure the water jets are working properly. Maintaining an adequate water ■

■ ■ flow by cleaning the water jets is essential and should be done at least every time the blades are changed.Replace worn cutting discs to reduce the cutting time.Maintain hoses and bottles.

Inspect and maintain

re-usable masks.RCS dustOther risks

Make sure you deal with other

risks, eg:

■ noise;■ flying debris;■ water spray;You are at risk if the dust you breathe in

over a full shift contains more RCS than the amount shown here next to the penny.

Page 2 of 4Using cut-off saws: A guide to protecting your lungs

you are cut off Using cut-off saws - HSE Information about health and

Health and Safety

Executive

■ hand-arm vibration;■ manual handling.

Consider the safety of yourself and others when you operate a cut-off saw. Use suitable personal protective equipment, such as hard hats, safety glasses and ear defenders. Make sure these items are worn correctly and are suitable for use together.Remember!

扩展:health information / saws 特种作业操作证 / saws

■ ■ Always damp down dust.

Wear a suitable dust mask.

Find out more

To protect employees and others,

employers should comply with the

workplace health and safety requirements

in the Control of Substances Hazardous to

Health Regulations 2002 (as amended)

(COSHH). HSE has produced simple

guidance on how to control RCS

exposure in construction. These COSHH

essentials guidance sheets are at www.

hse.gov.uk/pubns/guidance/cnseries.

htm. COSHH essentials sheet CN6

gives guidance on cutting paving and

kerbstones with rotary cutters.

Control of exposure to silica dust: A guide for employees Leaflet INDG463 HSE Books 2013 www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg463.htm

HSE have produced a DVD Time to clear the air! Protect your lungs when using cut-off saws, available from HSE’s website at www.hse.gov.uk/construction/resources/videos.htm

Respiratory protective equipment at work: A practical guide HSG53 (Third edition) HSE Books 2005 ISBN 978 0 7176 2904 6 www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/hsg53.htmYou can find more information about RPE at www.hse.gov.uk/respiratory-

protective-equipment/index.htm

See HSE’s construction web pages at www.hse.gov.uk/construction/index.htm

Using cut-off saws: A guide to protecting your lungs Page 3 of 4

you are cut off Using cut-off saws - HSE Information about health and

Health and Safety

Executive

Further information

For information about health and safety, or to

report inconsistencies or inaccuracies in this

guidance, visit www.hse.gov.uk/. You can

view HSE guidance online and order priced

publications from the website. HSE priced

publications are also available from

bookshops.

This guidance is issued by the Health and

Safety Executive. Following the guidance is not

compulsory, unless specifically stated, and you

are free to take other action. But if you do

follow the guidance you will normally be doing

enough to comply with the law. Health and

safety inspectors seek to secure compliance

with the law and may refer to this guidance.

This leaflet is available at www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg461.htm.

? Crown copyright If you wish to reuse this information visit www.hse.gov.uk/copyright.htm for details. First published 03/13.

This leaflet is produced in conjunction with the Highways Agency

Published by the Health and Safety Executive 03/13 INDG461Page 4 of 4

扩展:health information / saws 特种作业操作证 / saws

四 : Cut-off Machines and Tools

Chapter 2. Cut-off Machines and Tools

Bandsaw

Cutting Sheet Material

A bandsaw is used to cut sheet material. It has a rotating saw blade, and the material is pushed to the blade for cutting.

Fig.1, Bandsaw

Notes for using a bandsaw

you are cut off Cut-off Machines and Tools

(1) Leave a small amount of material on the waste side of the cutting line as the final cut is usually done using a milling machine.

(2) The height of the saw blade guide is adjustable and should be adjusted so that the material will just pass under the guide. Too much gap will allow the saw blade to bend resulting in an inaccurate cut.

(3) Even if the material

becomes hot,

don't use protective gloves. Since are easily caught by the teeth of the saw blade possibly resulting in injury.

(4) Ensure that you press the material firmly in the saw table to maintain control of the material being cut.

(5) Firm but gentle force should be used on the work piece so that the saw blade is not distorted or even broken during the cutting process.

(6) Don't cut round or other similer shapes in a bandsaw as they such shapes tend to be unstable resulting in danger to the operator as a result of an uncontrolled movement of the material.

(7) Do not place a finger of hand in front of the blade when cutting as it is possible to be injured by the blade. Also, take care when finishing the cut as the two parts of the material will separate thus exposing the teeth of the blade.

Procedure of the Cutting down a Plate or Sheet

Using a band saw is relatively simple. As shown in Figures 2 - 5, pushed into the saw blade for cutting.

Fig.2, Marking

The material is marked using a Fig.3, Marked Board Material It is recommended to cut to within

you are cut off Cut-off Machines and Tools

scribe and ruler. The scribed line

needs to be reasonable accurate and

consideration needs to be give to

reduce the amount of waste.

3 mm of the line on the waste side thus allowing for more accurate

cutting to the line using a milling machine.

Fig.4 Cutting Fig.5, Cut Material

The middle of two marked lines is Example of material cut using the cut pressing down firmly with both bandsaw.

hands.

Power Hacksaw

Cut Circular Material

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When cirtcular material is cut, a

hacksaw, shown in Figure 1, is

used. The hacksaw has a blade,

which has reciprocating motions.

The fixed material on the hacksaw

is cut off as a result of the

blades action. CAUTION

(1) Don't cut thin material

e.g., less than 10 mm of thick.

The reason for this is that the

blade can easily bent the

material causing damage to the

material and/or blade.

(2) The blade must be slowly

applied to the material to avoid

damage. This principle applies

to all all machining tools.

(3) Secure the material firmly

to avoid any movement of the

material which can break the saw

blade of give an inaccurate

cut.. Fig.1, Hacksaw

Procedure of the Cutting Circular Material

The power hacksaw is easy to use. Firstly, the material is fixed in the vise of the hacksaw at the desired length. A switch of the hacksaw turns on, and lowers the blade slowly on to the material. When the material is finished cutting, the hacksaw stops automatically.

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Fig.2, Fix of Material

A material is fixed to suitable

length. Fig.3, Cutting A switch is turned on, and when theblade is lowered, and the

material will be cut with the saw

stopping automatically.

Fig.4, Cut Material Fig.5, Cut Large-sized Material The material cut by the hacksaw has The hacksaw can cut off large sizes a rough surface. It is usually material, though it may take some finished with a lathe. time to do so. .

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Hand Hacksaw

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Cut Thin Material

As mentioned earlier, a power hacksaw is not suitable for cutting thin material as the material will bend. When it is necessary to cut thin material, less than 10mm, it is best to do this by hand using a hacksaw. How to use a hacksaw

Generally, the blade of a

hacksaw is designed for cutting when it is pushed. Therefore, more force is used when pushing the hacksaw that when pulling backwards during the return stroke.

Figure 2 shows the using of the hacksaw. The photo shows the cutting of aluminum alloy of 10 mm diameter. Cutting is easier and safer when the material is fixed in a vise.

Fig.1, Hacksaw Fig.2, Cutting with a Hacksaw

Guillotine

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Straight Cutting of a Thin Sheet

When an aluminum alloy sheet, which has less than 2 mm thickness, or a stainless steel sheet, which has less than 1 mm thickness, are cut down, a guillotine as shown in Figure 1 is used. The cutting process is very easy as shown in Figs2 - 4, but it can only cut in a straight.

Fig.1, Guillotine

Fig.2, Fixing the Material

A guillotine is used for cutting a A marked sheet is set the position thin material. for cutting to the edge.

Fig.3, Step on a Pedal Strongly Fig.4, Cut Material

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The machine is actuated by stepping The guillotine does leave a small on the pedal. burr that will need to be removed

Drop Saw

Easy Cutting of Angle, Tubular and Pipe Material

A drop saw as shown in Figure 1 uses a thin abrasive, which rotates at high speed on tp the material. The material with comparatively

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thin walls, such as an angle or pipe material made from steel, can be cut very quickly and easily. But please be careful of sparks that are generated during cutting (see Figure 2).

Fig.1, Drop Saw

Fig.2, Cutting of a Steel Material

Oxy-Acetylene Cutting

Easy Cutting of a Thick Material

The oxy-acetylene cutting process is achieved by blowing away the

molten material, which is melted by the combustion heat of

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acetylene gas and oxygen. Generally, only steel material is cut using this process and material of remarkable thickness can be cut. However, the thickness that can be cut is based on a user's skill and the size of a torch used.

Fig.1, Torch for the Cutting Fig.2, Tip of the Torch

Actual Oxy-Acetylene Cutting

The following photographs shows the demolition of the old

experimental equipment. In this case, the steel materials, which have about 20 mm of thickness, are cut by the oxy-acetylene cutting.

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(1) Experimental Equipment to

Demolish (2) Cutting

(3) Cutting (4) Scrap

Fig.3, Oxy-Acetylene Cutting

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Other Cut-off Tools

Convenient Tools

The following tools are also convenient for cutting.

Fig.1, Tin Snips

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Fig.2, Pliers

Tin snips are used for cutting thin Pliers can be used to cut wire and sheet material and there are three thin rod and are also used for basic types, straight left hand and bending and holding.

right hand.

Fig.3, Side Cutters Fig.4, Utility Knife

Side cutters are typically used to The utility knife as shown in the

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cut copper wire or other soft photograph is typically used to cur material, cutting steel can cause rubber, paper and other soft damage to the cutting edge. materials.

Fig.5, Circle Cutter

Fig.6, Saw for Woodwork

The circle cutter is a very useful The photograph shows and example of tool for cutting round shapes out the many saws available for the of soft materials e.g Gaskets. cutting of timber. Although they

are not used for curing metal, the

need to cut timber can often occur

in a metalworking shop.

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