一 : 宾语从句讲解课件
二 : 宾语从句讲解课件
1.宾语从句的概念 2.宾语从句的引导词 3.宾语从句中的语序 4.宾语从句的时态变化
三.教学难点 1. if与whether的区别 2. when与if 引导的宾语从句和状语从句 3.宾语从句与简单句的互换
问题一: 什么是宾语? 宾语表示及物动词的动作对象和介词所联系 的对象,常由名词或相当与名词的词担任,置 于及物动词或介词（动词词组）后。 I like my teacher. （名词作宾语） I know him. （代词作宾语） How is he getting along with his English? I enjoy playing basketball.(动名词作宾语） I am interested in playing piano. He bought me a pen.(双宾语） We keep it a secret. I decide to study hard.（不定式作宾语）.
宾语从句即句子作宾语，而不再是一个词或短语 作宾语。 I like my teacher. I enjoy playing basketball.(动名词 作宾语） I decide to study hard.（不定式作宾语） I know him .（代词作宾语） I know Mr Li teaches English. (句子作宾语） She asked if the answer was right. (句子作宾语）
简单句 We know him． 主s 谓v 宾o We know he likes English. 复合句 主s
I think (that) your clothes fit well. He couldn’t tell me where his home was.
He talked of how he helped the old man. He always pays attention to whatever the teacher says. I am sure (that) you looked nice that evening. He is afraid (that) he can’t go tonight.
Find out the Object Clauses
Do you know who is the first Chinese astronaut(宇航员)? Our teacher told us that the earth goes around the sun. Please tell me where she has gone.
I don’t know if he will come tonight.
Let’s find out what’s on tonight .
We are proud of that Beijing is one of the biggest cities in the world .
连 接 词 陈述语序
that if/whether 特殊疑问词 连接词+主语+谓 语+其他
1.（that ）+ 陈述句 He thinks, “ Lucy likes school.” He thinks (that）Lucy likes school. 2. if/whether + 一般疑问句 He asked,“Was Lucy late again?” He asked if Lucy was late again. 3.特殊疑问词 + 特殊疑问句 He asks me, “When will Lucy come ?” He asks me when Lucy will come.
１．当陈述句充当宾语时，由 that ____ 连接 主句
1. This is a book.----- I know 2. You like singing.-----She says 3. He worked last night.--- I know 4. They will go home.---Tell Lucy
if/whether 连接 ２当一般疑问句充当宾语，由________ (1) Is Jim a good student? I don’t know． I don’t know if /whether Jim is a good student. (2) Does Kate get up early? Do you know?
Do you know if /whether Kate gets up early?
用以下开头与下列句子连成宾语从句: 1.Do you know … 2.I want to know …
3.The teacher asks …
1. Is he reading ? 1）Was she late yesterday? if/whether 2. Does Tom work hard? 2) Did you watch TV ? 3. Will they read books ? 3) Can you sing ?
? 注意：只能用whether不用if 的三种情况 ? 一般情况下，if 和whether可以互换，但以下3种 情况只能用whether： 1. 与or not连用： He asked me whether or not I was coming. 2. 在介词之后： It depends on whether it is going to rain. 3. 在不定式之前： We haven’t decided whether to go there. 4.作主语只能用whether Whether he will come is not decided.
特殊疑问词 3.当特殊疑问句充当宾语时，由 ________ 连接．
1.What is she doing? Can you tell me? Can you tell me what she is doing? 2.Where does she live? Do you know? Do you know where she lives?
用以下开头与下列句子连成宾语从句: 1.Do you know … 2.I want to know … 3. Can you tell me …
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
What is this ? What are you doing ? Where do you live ? When does he get up ? How did you go to work? Who will you play with?
无论主句是陈述句还是疑问句，宾语从句都是 运用陈述句的语序，即是“主语在前，谓语在 后”的顺序。
Helen says that she will learn French next year. Do you know where he comes from? He asked me if I could get to the bus station on time.
练习：将下列句子改成陈述句语序： 1.Is there a bank near here?
There is a bank near here
2.Is it on Fifth Avenue? It is on Fifth Avenue 3.Are they doing homework? They are doing homework
4.Does she work in a hospital? she works in a hospital 5.Did you go to Center Park? you went to Center Park 6.Do we have to wear a uniform? we have to wear a uniform 7.Can we wear hats in school? we can wear hats in school
8.Where’s your pen pal from? Where your pen pal is from 9. Where does he live? Where he lives 10.What language does she speak? What language she speaks 11.Why do you like pandas? Why you like pandas
1. Who tells you the news ?
→ Can you tell me
2. Which is the way to the bank ?
→ I want to know
3. What's wrong with you ?
→ I wonder
4. What happened to you ?
→ He asked me
5. Which is the way to the station?
→ Please tell me 想一想 为什么这些句子的语序不变？ .?
I hear (that)
Jim was ( be ) a worker two years ago. Jim is ( be ) an English teacher now . Jim will cook ( cook ) dinner tomorrow . Jim is singing ( sing )a popular song now. Jim has been ( be ) to the Great Wall twice . Jim was playing ( play ) basketball when his father came back. Jim had learned ( learn )1000 Chinese words by the end of last semester.
1.当主句是一般现在时，宾语从句的时态不作限 制，我们可以根据句子的需要使用任何一种时态。 （需要性原则）
1) He will go to Hong Kong . 2) He is sick. 3) He is reading a boo
k . 4) He has finished his work.
1) He would go to Hong Kong . 2) He was sick. 3) He was reading a book . 4) He had finished his work.
2.当主句是一般过去时的时候，宾语从句必须 运用相应的过去的某一种时态，从而达到主句 和从句的相互一致。（呼应性原则）
主句时态 从 句 时 态 连 接 后 连 接 前 一般现在时 时态由从句决定 work 一般现在时work 一般过去时 worked 一般过去时 一般将来时will work 现在进行时is working 一般过去时worked 过去完成时had worked 过去将来时would work 过去进行时was working
现在完成时have worked 过去完成时had worked
比一比 He told me (that) Summer is after Spring . I was told (that)the sun is much bigger than the moon. My parents told me (that) no news is good news. 3.当宾语从句说明的是客观存在的真理时， 就不用受到主句时态的限制，仍是用一般现 在时态。（特殊性原则）
比一比 I don’t know where I should go. Tell me how I can do it. I don’t know where to go. Tell me how to do it. 你有什么发现？ 结论：由连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句 ←→疑问词 + to do 的简单句。 条件：(1). 主主从主 (2). 主(间)宾从主
练一练 1.I don’t know what I shall do next .(变为简单句 → I don’t know ____________next . What to do 2.John didn’t decide which book he would buy .(变为简单句） which book to . → John didn’t decide_____________ buy 3.Can you tell me how to get to the bus stop ?(变 为复合句） how I can get → Can you tell me ____________ to the bus stop ? 4.Please tell Lucy how to use the MP5 .(变为复合 句） how she can use →Can you tell Lucy_____________ the MP5.
A we get to the 1.Could you tell me place? A．how B．whether C．where D．what 2.The teacher says C she will leave a message on the headmaster’s desk. A．if B．who C．that D．what 3.I am not sure ____ he will come tomorrow. B A. that B. if C. what D. who A 4.---Do you remember ___ he came? ---Yes, I do. He came by car. A. how B. when C. that D. if 解题指导一：判断语义，选择连接词
5.Do you know how much hot water C A．Mum is needed B．does Mum need C．Mum needs D．did Mum need
6.Can you tell me A．where he is C．he is where
? B．where is he D．what is he
C 7.I want to know how long . A．has he been back B．has he come back C．he has been back D．he has come back
8.I thought he ____to see his mother Ｄ if he _____time. A．will go…has B．will go …will have C．would go …would have D．would go …had
Ｃ 9.Do you know＿＿＿＿＿＿＿＿? A. what the news are B. what is the news C. what the news is D. what are the news
C 8. I didn’t know how to London? A．would they go B．are they g
oing C．they would go D．they are going
解题指导三: 时态呼应 若主句时态是现在时态，宾语从句的时态可根据实际 情况而定； 若主句是过去时态，宾语从句的时态要用过去的某个 时态，客观真理除外。
( ) 1 The girls asked if they ____ some food and drink with them. A. took B. take C. takes D. will take ( ) 2 Catherine said that she ___ to Guangzhou. A. has never gone B. had never gone C. has never been D. had never been ( ) 3 The students want to know whether they___ dictation today. A. had B. has . C. will have D. are
（ ）4 She asked Linda if___ go and get some. A. could she B. she could C. she can D. she may ( ) 5 Linda said the moon___ round the earth. A. travelled B. has travelled C. travells D. had travelled
( ) 1 Can you tell me___ you were born, Betty? A. who B. what C. when D. that ( ) 2 I don't know ___ they have passed the exam. A. what B. if C. when D. where ( ) 3 I hardly understand ___ he has told me. A. that B. what C. which D. who ( ) 4 She didn't know ___ back soon. A. whether he would be B. if would he be C. he will be
? ( ) 5 I don't know _____ he still lives here after so many years. A. whether B where C. what D.when ? ( ) 6 Do you know _____ they listened to yesterday evening? A. what B when C why D how ? ( ) 7 He asked me _____told me the accident. A whom B which C who D whose
( ) 2.Please tell me ______ last year. A.where does your sister work B where did your sister work C where your sister works D where your sister worked ( ) 3.She asked me if I knew ______. A. whose pen is it B. whose pen it was C. whose pen it is D. whose pen was it ( ) 4. You must remember ________. A. what your mother said B. what did your mother say C. your mother said what D. what has your mother said
( ) 5 Did you know ____? A. who he was looking after B. who was he looking for C. who he is looking for D. who he is looking after ( ) 6 Could you tell me ___? A. when will they leave Beijing B. when would they leave Beijing C. when they will leave Beijing D. when did they leave Beijing
Ⅰ.Find out the mistakes and correct them.
1 Could you tell me where do they live? 2 She knew that Danny is a student. was 3 He told me that winter was colder than autumn. is 4 Do you know who car it is? whose
3.—We don’t know ______. C -- It is said that he was born in Canada. A. what he is B. when he was born C. where he comes from D. if he lives here 4．Lily’s mother looked for her for half an hour, but could not find ________? C A. what Lily was C. where Lily was B. what was Lily D. where was Lily
A 5 The girls asked if they ____ some food and drink with them.
A. took C. takes B. take D. will take
6 Linda said the moon___ round the earth. C A. travelled C. travels B. has travelled D. had travelled
A ? 7. Could you please tell me ________ he will come here tomorrow? ? A. if B. weather C. what D. which ? 8. Could you tell me ___? C
A. when will they l
eave Beijing B. when would they leave Beijing C. when they will leave Beijing
D. when did they leave Beijing
Ⅲ.完成句子。 Will be back 1. I hear (that) he ______________ in an hour. （ 我听说他一小时后回来。） missed us 2. He said (that) he ______________ very much. （他说他非常想念我们。） 3. Ask him If /whether he can come ____________________. （问问他是否能来。） where he is 4. Can you tell me ____________________. （你能告诉我他在哪儿吗？）
Ⅱ. Choose the right answers.
1. Could you tell me B ? A. where the twins were B. where the twins are C where are the twins 2. A: Do you know D ? B: Yes , he came here by train . A. when he came here B. if he will come here C. why he came here D. how he came here 3.She says she B English for ten years . A. learned B. has learned C. was learning D. have learned 4. The teacher told us that the earth B round . A. was B. is C. will be D. would be 5. Tell me D . A. what wrong is with him B. what's wrong to him C. what the matter is with him D. what's the matter with him 6. My friend asked me B . A. who is the girl B. who the girl was C. who was the girl D. who the girl
宾 语 从 句 三 要 素
引导词 if／whether（一般疑问句 ）
主句为一般现在时从句可为任何时态 一般过去时 过去将来时 主句为一般过去时 从句 过去进行时 过去完成时 客观真理 自然现象
公式定理 名言警句 时态不变
三 : 宾语从句讲解
定义：在复合句中用作宾语的从句。 三类： 动词的宾语从句 介词的宾语从句 形容词的宾语从句 考点：引导词/连接词、时态、语序
? 从属连词 ? 1.that ? 2.whether / if ? 3.whether / if在从句中的区别 ? 连接代词 ? 连接副词
? ? ? ? 引导由陈述句充当的宾语从句，常省略 本身无意义，只起连接作用 例句： I know （that） he will leave china tomorrow. ? He says （that） he is going to swim with his friend tomorrow.
? 引导表示“是否”的宾语从句。 ? 不作句子成分，不能省略。
? 当宾语从句为一般疑问句时，用whether/if 连接，标点符号取决于主句 ? 当宾语从句为特殊疑问句时，连接词就用 原来的疑问词（参见连接代词，连接副词）
? Nobody knows whether he likes to go to school or not. ? He hasn’t decided if/whether he’ll go on a trip to Shanghai. ? Let’s see if/whether we can find out some information about that.
whether / if在从句中的区别
? 1.引导宾语从句，含义区别小，一般可通 用。 ? I don’t know whether/if they will come to help us. ? I am not sure whether/if I’ll have time to go with you .
whether / if在从句中的区别
? 2.if “如果”引导状语从句，在容易引起混 淆产生歧义的情况下，不用if，用whether ? Please let me know whether you intend to come. ? 请让我们知道你是否想来。 ? 如果使用if，则 ? Please let me know if you intend to come. ? 如果你打算来，请让我们知道。
whether / if在从句中的区别
? 3.当句子中有or not 时，用whether ? I don’t care whether or not your car breaks down. ? 4.在介词（prep）后，只用whether ? This depends upon whether we are determined to do it .
whether / if在从句中的区别
? 5.在动词不定式（to do）之前，只用 whether ? He doesn’t know whether to stay at home. ? 6.在及物动词（vt） discuss、leave、put、 doubt后的宾语从句中，只用whether ? We discussed whether we should make a change in our plan.
whether / if在从句中的区别
? 7.引导主语从句时，只用whether ? Whether the news is true remains(仍然) a questions. ? Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown. ? 8.引导表语从句时，只用whether ? The question is whether they can take our advice.
whether / if在宾语从句中的区别
? 9.引导同位语从句时，常用whether ? I don’t care about the question whether he ‘ll come. ? The question whether the students answered correctly should be decided by the teacher
? 连接代词： ? what ,which, who, whose（所有格+n）, whom（宾语）, whoever, whatever, whichever ? 在从句中作一定的成分，主语，宾语，定 语
? Please tell me whom we have to see. ? The teacher told us whose writing was the best in our class.
? 连接副词： ? when(指时间) where(指地点) ? why(表原因)how(表方式),在从句中作 状语
? He didn’t tell me when we would meet again. ? Could you please show me how you need the new watch? ? Do you know where he is from? ? He asked me when I was going to write a letter to Jim.
? 1.主现从不限 ? 2.主过从四过 ? 3.主句为过去时，从句是客观事实， 真理
? 1.主现从不限： ? 主句为表示现在的（一般现在时，现 在进行时，现在完成时），从句的时 态可根据实际情况使用任何时态
? 2.主过从四过： ? 主句为过去时，从句的时态应是表过去的 某个时态：一般过去时 ? 过去进行时 ? 过去完成时 ? 过去将来时 ? 例句接页
? 3.主句为过去时，从句是客观事实，真理， 从句仍用一般现在时。 ? He said that light travels much faster than sound. ? He said that YaoMing is much taller than he. ? The teacher told us that the earth moves around the sun. ? They said that the earth is round.
? 1.I know that he will leave china tomorrow. ? 2.He says he is going to swim with his friend tomorrow. ? 3.I hear he’ll be back in a few days. ? 4.I hear he came back in a few days.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1.He said that he had seen the film. 过去完成时 过去将来时 2.She said she was going to visit the Great wall. 过去进行时 3.He thought he was working for the people. 4.I heard she had been to the great wall. 过去完成时 过去将来时 5.John hoped that he would find a job soon. 一般过去时 6.She said she was much better that before. 7.She said she was reading a book at 7 yesterday. 过去进行时
? 语序： ? 1.把两个独立的句子，连成一个含有宾语 从句的复合句时，要注意语序 例句 ? 2.从句用陈述语序（无论主句为陈述还是 疑问），全句的标点随主句 例句 ? 3.主句+引导词+宾语从句[主语(do you think)+谓语+其他] ? 4.What’s the matter/wrong 顺序不变 例句 ? 5.否定前移
? 当主句的谓语动词是think believe guess suppose,且主语为第一人称，一般现在时 【I think+宾从】 ? 如果否定的是后面的从句，否定前移，将 主句改为否定形式，而从句仍用肯定形式
? 1.When did he buy this new bike? Could you tell me ? ? Could you tell me when he bought this new bike ? ? 2.Where does Jim’s father work? Do you know？ ? Do you know where Jim’s father works? ? 3.They are good doctors. He told us. ? He
told us they were good doctors.
1.can you tell me who we have to see? 对 2.can you tell me who do we have to see? 错 3.do you know what time does the plane arrive in Paris? 错 4.do you know what time does the plane in Paris? 对 5.I want to know where you come from. 对 6.I want to know where do you come from. 错 7.Can you tell me how I can get to the zoo? 对 8.Can you tell me how can I get to the zoo? 错
? 1.He asked me what I did yesterday afternoon. ? 2.Do you know why winter is colder than summer? ? 3.I want to know whether you can come out . ? 4.You must remember what your teacher said. ? 5.Dad, do you know when the football game will start?
? Could you tell me what’s the matter/wrong with you ? ? The manger came up to see what was the matter.(随主句时态)
? ? ?
宾语从句三注意，时态语序引导词； 主句一般现在时，从句不需受限制； 主句一般过去时，从句须用相应时； 陈述句转化that引，一般疑问句用 if/whether, 特殊问句疑问词，引导词后陈述式
四 : 宾语从句讲解课件
师生互动 自主发现 体验语法学习之乐趣
? 1）What are the strongest days of the week? Saturday and Sunday—all the other days are weak(week) days. ? 2) Why is the letter “R” like Christmas Because it comes at the end of December. ? 3) What time is it when a pie is divided among four friends? A quarter to one.
Noun Clause: Functions as a NOUN in a sentence.
What is the function of a noun in a sentence? 名词在句中可以充当什么成分? 名词在句中可以充当什么成分?
? 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从 Clauses） 句 (Noun Clauses） ? 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 在复合句中能担任主语 宾语、表语、 主语、 在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、 同位语等 同位语等 ? 因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能， 因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能， 名词从句又可分别称为主语从句 主语从句、 名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾 语从句、表语从句和 语从句、表语从句和同位语从句
名词性从句 noun clause
What kind of clauses are they?
1. What the driver of the yellow car did
made me extremely angry. 2.Why she did this is still unknown. 3.It’s hard to forget what we have learned ’ in his classes. 4.Please don’t tell my mother when I’ll ’ ’ give her my gift.
宾语从句： 从句在复合句中充当宾语成分通常放在主 宾语从句：1.从句在复合句中充当宾语成分通常放在主 句谓语动词（及物动词）或介词后 句谓语动词（及物动词）或介词后
连词： 常可省略） 连词：that, whether，if （ that 常可省略） ， who, what, which, whoever, whatever, when where why how
1). They know that the habit will kill them. 2).It all depends on whether they will support us . 3) I am afraid that he didn’t call me . ’ 4).He made it clear to the public that he did an important and necessary job . 5).I find it necessary that we should do the homework.
1.必须由 a conjunction（连词） (that, 必须由 （连词） whether, if, what…) 来引导宾语从句 来引导宾语从句. 2.从句必须为连词加陈述句的语序 从句必须为连词加陈述句的语序. 从句必须为连词加陈述句的语序 3.从句的时态必须和主句保持一致。 从句的时态必须和主句保持一致。 从句的时态必须和主句保持一致 主句时态